Top Five Highly Paid Law Specialties

Law operates everywhere. Be it in your house as family law, at your workplace as business law or within your assets as real estate law, law is everywhere. Without a doubt, a lawyer is one of the highly paid individuals of the city. If not fighting for a courtroom trial, you will at least need lawyers to give you legal advice for your situation. Despite the most demanded Cincinnati foreclosure defense lawyers and Cincinnati OVI attorney, there are other specialties in law that make the best of your career and promise you handsome salaries once you have passed the bar exam. Below are the top five law specializations that are the most popular among law students.

Criminal law

This is the most common type of law specialization. This branch also includes DUI laws, which are again one of the most cases lawyers deal with each day. According to a survey, nearly forty four percent of all traffic accidents that prove to be fatal are caused by driving under influence. Criminal law is about governmental prosecution of someone who has committed a crime, as said by the public law. If an act is not labeled as a crime by governmental statue or common law, then there are more chances that the case is considered as civil, not criminal. In short, the act that is done should be approved as a crime.

Tax law

This law revolves around corporate people and organizations who want to pay taxes according to their profits and requirements. The rules of tax laws are concerned with Internal Revenue Code, constitution and other statutes. All tax disputes are addressed in US Court Tax Court which may rise to the Supreme Court if the matter is serious.

Corporate law

This branch is another famous specialization. The advantage of corporate law is this that it covers subcategories like maritime law, acquisition and most of the business law. For business law, proper documentation is an integral part that is emphasized upon. This branch deals with industry and commerce as well as tenders and trade marking. As for maritime law, this branch usually deals with disputes of ownership of goods and shipping.

Divorce law

The divorce rate in USA is fifty percent for example almost half of all the couples end up getting a divorce. Such high ratio makes the divorce law a specialization that is very popular. Divorce lawyers deal with two parties who wish to part. This branch of law usually tries to reach on a solution for the best settlement of its clients. Especially where there are children in the case, the court takes the decision that is in best interests of children.

Constitutional law

This branch of law is thought to be as the most diverse branch of law. Constitutional law usually deals with proper understanding and application of the US Constitution. This understanding of law is therefore helpful for both federal and state governments and helps to resolves disputes among them. Therefore, this branch is not limited to only Federal government but also covers aspects of state governments. Mostly these cases are dealt with in the Supreme Court.

The Different Law Enforcers At Work To Keep Our Streets Safe

When it comes to keeping the streets of America and its residents safe, law enforcement forms one of the three major components of the criminal justice system, the other two being the courts and corrections. Although there is an element of collaboration associated with the criminal justice system in the US, each component has an individual purpose and works independently from the rest.

The purpose of having law enforcers on our streets is largely to keep the public safe, but these teams of people also work to maintain order and service functions and also investigate suspected criminal activity. The law enforcement agencies at work in the US also provide the first response to emergencies and the protection of certain public facilities.

In America there are various types of police at work. There are numerous types of agency operating at different levels and as each state has their own rules and regulations which are unique to it when it comes to policing agencies, it can get very confusing. The powers, responsibilities and funding for each policing agency will vary from state to state; therefore it is important to understand the difference between the law enforcers at work.

A federal police officer will have full federal authority given to them under United States Code. These officers have the authorization to enforce various laws which not only operate on a federal level but they also have the authority to enforce state, county and local laws. A federal police officer is considered to operate at the highest level of the law and possess nationwide jurisdiction for the enforcement of federal law.

Because of the way that the US is organized into states with individual jurisdiction for each state, it is hard for the federal government to exercise general police powers to all members of the police force. Each sovereign state retains their police, military and domestic law-making powers which can make things complicated.

Most states in America have government agencies which are responsible for providing law enforcement duties. These can be known as the State Police, State Patrol or the Highway Patrol. In most cases these agencies are part of the state Department of Public Safety. The Highway Patrol is a police unit that has been created for the purpose of enforcing traffic safety compliance on the country’s roads and highways. The duties of highway patrols or traffic police can include a whole range of things. They are responsible for investigating accidents and determining the cause, enforcing traffic laws, teaching the public how to drive safely, emergency response, maintenance of the roads and also traffic enforcement to make sure that all the relevant traffic regulations are met, for example speed limits.

County police is also an important part of law enforcement in the United States. Within parishes and boroughs, law enforcement is the responsibility of sheriff’s departments and county police. In general, county police are only in use in metropolitan countries, if need be there will also be a sheriff’s department on hand to deal with minor issues such as service papers. However, in other areas there is no county police and the local sheriff takes on the responsibility of sole law enforcer. In this case, the sheriff will act both as sheriff and county police; this is the most common approach.

The sheriff’s job is similar to that of a police chief and in some areas; the sheriff can be the highest ranking law enforcement officer. A sheriff is not required to patrol or handle street crime as this is the job of the city police. A sheriff’s duties include making arrests, warrants, conducting criminal investigations and maintaining the county jail. A sheriff is also responsible for providing court security, for example he will be required to serve summonses and divorce papers, as well as collect overdue taxes.

Personal Injury Lawyer Explains Tort Law

With the exception of contract disputes, every lawsuit that ends up in civil court falls under tort law. By definition, a tort is a wrongful act that results in legal liability. Whether committed intentionally or out of negligence, the accused may be held financially responsible for all damages suffered by the victim. But, in order to establish responsibility, the plaintiff must prove that the defendant is liable. Here is how a personal injury lawyer might help him do that.

Select A Category

Tort law can be divided into three separate categories: intentional torts, negligent torts, and strict liability. Although there are many different situations and scenarios that might lead you to contact a personal injury lawyer, all of them fall into one of the aforementioned groups. Let us take a moment to discuss them individually.

Negligence

When a person fails to exercise a certain level of care and hurts another individual because of it, he may be deemed negligent. An everyday example of this type of tort is a car accident in which someone is injured. Because one driver is usually at fault for the accident, he may also be negligent. In most cases, however, it is not enough to simply establish blame. The plaintiff must also prove that the accident could have been avoided if the defendant had done the right thing. If, for example, the defendant ran a red light and crashed into the plaintiff’s car, he would almost certainly be deemed negligent because he violated traffic laws. Medical malpractice, dog bites, and slip-and-falls are other common cases that often fall into the negligence category.

Intentional

Although they are often also crimes, it may be possible to sue a person over an intentional tort. Examples of this willful kind of misconduct include fraud, theft, and assault. How can you sue a criminal? Let’s say, for example, that someone punches you in the face at a party and breaks your nose. Even if the criminal serves time in jail, you can sue him in civil court for your medical costs, lost wages, pain, and suffering. The fact that he was found guilty of the crime will only strengthen your case. Libel and slander may also fall into this category.

Strict Liability

Unlike intentional or negligence torts, the strict liability category is not concerned with the defendant’s level of care. Instead, it focuses solely on the act itself. A good example of a strict liability case would be a class action lawsuit against a car maker for a faulty airbag, i.e., a defective product. In this instance, the personal injury lawyer for the plaintiffs would not concern himself with culpability or blame. Rather, he would simply introduce evidence to establish that his clients suffered physical and/or emotional injuries because of the defective product. In other words, the act would speak for itself.

Important Information About Crime and Law

You or your near and dear ones need not be faced with a criminal lawsuit to know important things about criminal offenses. It is always good to have sound knowledge in such subjects so that you can help yourself or others keep away from such situations or find a solution when confronted with one. Of course you can resort to professional advisors to help you but some amount of knowledge will indeed prove to be handy. All major cities have their prized advocate. For instance, in Las Vegas you will find excellent Las Vegas Criminal Defense Attorney or Las Vegas Criminal Defense Lawyer to save you from criminal charges, if the need arises.

There are various types of crimes that are charged. The first type is the generic variety of crimes. However, it does not mean that generic is equivalent to trivial or petty. This type includes the likes of abduction, homicide, theft, false witnessing, etc. These forms of crimes may lead to severe punishments and only a good lawyer will be able to minimize or even eliminate punishments.

The second type entails all sex related crime charges. This type of crime will include sex abuses and assaults, molestation, sexual misconduct directed towards a minor, sexual impropriety, etc. Such offenses can bring on serious punishments, irrespective of whether the accused is male or female. Punishments can be even more severe when it is committed by a major against a minor. Even in the case of a false accusation, it is only a good lawyer who can save the charged from being punished.

The next type is the DUI or the Driving under Influence type of crime. This refers to offenses like hit and run, non-compliance with traffic rules, racing and reckless driving and so on. The punishments could involve heavy fine, imprisonment or both. Lawyers who specialize in handling DUI cases can be easily found but make sure you find an efficient one.

The above mentioned crimes are only three of the most common types of crimes noticed these days. There are numerous other types of crimes that are prevalent in the modern world. The gravity of the punishment or penalty depends on the severity of the crime committed. People who are interested in knowing more details about the types of crimes, the punishment they entail and the remedial measures may opt for studying law and becoming a criminal advocate.

In order to become a lawyer specializing in criminal law, one needs to study at the undergraduate level for four years followed by three years in a law college. Most colleges require the student to have studied certain specific subjects at the undergraduate level. In order to get admitted into all good law colleges, the candidate is required to pass competitive entrance exams. It is a good idea to work as an intern under the guidance of a renowned and experienced criminal attorney. This will help the student to understand the practical implementation of all law theories that he or she has studied in law school as well as to get an opportunity to learn the tricks of the trade from the senior lawyer.

Reasons For Receiving Criminal Traffic Charges

Sometimes it happens that you are caught by traffic law enforcement officer for having violated the traffic rules. You are then issued a traffic ticket with a date and time to appear in the court. If your ticket has a box checked which states ‘criminal violation court appearance required’, you are likely to have received a criminal traffic ticket. This is considered a crime and may result in your arrest, may add up as your criminal record or even lead to your license being suspended.

Some of the reasons for receiving criminal traffic charges are leaving the accident spot, driving without valid license, driving with expired or suspended licenses, violating the restrictions of license, careless driving, racing on roads, drunken driving etc. Not all traffic tickets indicate criminal charges. Consulting a Florida traffic ticket defense lawyer or attorney can help you in identifying the type of ticket you received.

Drunk driving termed as driving under influence (DUI) is considered a serious crime by the state of Florida. The laws regarding DUI are getting stricter due to the serious consequences of the act. Some times your negligence in driving or driving under influence may lead to an accident or traffic crash.

If you are involved in an accident causing injuries to the other party, you may be even charged of personal accident injury. If the victim of accident dies in the accident, it is termed as wrongful death and is a crime as per the laws of Florida. Sometimes it so happens that you are wrongly charged of these crimes. If you believe that you were not responsible for the condition caused, you can take an immediate action.

There are number of lawyers and attorneys for Criminal traffic charge defense in various cities of Florida. The criminal traffic charge defense lawyers can help you in identifying the severity of the charges on you and help you take necessary steps to come out of it with minimum penalty.

Traffic crashes are not treated as simple accidents as per the law. Traffic crashes are likely to cause very serious damages to few of those involved in it. Crashes which cause personal injuries or wrongful death and hit and run cases are often imposed huge legal penalties. Those involved in traffic crash are required to show documents like driver’s license, registration papers and insurance papers.

If you are charged of being responsible for traffic crash, you must seek traffic crash defense by consulting a lawyer or attorney to can help reduce the punishments or penalties imposed.

Crime Never Pays

Crime is a bad thing. And the previous sentence was an understatement, and an inaccurate description of the concept of Crime.

When someone commits a crime he or she, for sure, has broken a law that applies to the place and situation he or she is in. The principal statement of crime is that, if there is a law that is broken, there must be retribution, or justice meted.

Quick question. You run a red light. This means you have broken traffic laws. Does this mean you are a criminal?
Probably not.

If that were so, then probably three-quarters of the U.S.’s driving population would be criminals. Luckily, this is not the case. Crime, in a broad sense, refers to acts that violate political or moral law. An even more specific definition of Crime is the violation of criminal law.

Since running a red light is a violation of traffic laws and not criminal laws, we aren’t that ready to label more that half of the drivers on the streets today as criminals.

The general rules of defining crime may vary from country to country, culture to culture.

“Actus Reus and Mens Rea”, yes, I know. Two words that don’t really mean anything to most laypeople. Actus Reus means “guilty action.” This means an act of crime has been committed. Mens rea means “guilty mind.” This means there was malicious intentions by a party. Generally, for an act to be counted as a crime, both concepts must be present.

Corpus Delicti. Some people are as guilty of a crime as can be. But somehow, you find them free of guilt in the court of law. Usually, this is because there has been no corpus delicti found (Yes, more Latin words…). Without corpus delicti (or “proof of a crime”) there can be no prosecution of a crime.

Assisting a Crime. It may also be a crime to conspire in order to commit other crimes, or helping others to commit crimes (in which case one becomes an accomplice).

In some systems, the simple association for organizing a crime is punished. Roles that accomplices play include being a ‘lookout,’ or simply assisting in the communications of criminals in committing crimes.

Aborted Plans? In some areas, the attempt alone to commit a crime may be punished, even if the crime is not completed. For instance, it is generally a crime to attempt to murder someone, even if one has not succeeded in doing so.

The Insane Way Out. Most western systems do not punish to the full extent individuals who commit crimes unintentionally or are not yet of legal age. Those who have been proven to be insane at the time of the crime are examples of such.

Since insane people are said to not have proper control of their decision making faculties, no malicious intent can be accused against them.

When proof of a crime can be found, person can be put on trial for the criminal act. This allows the suspect to prove innocence, or for the court to prove his or her guilt. If found guilty, the person is now subject to the punishment accorded to him or her by the state.

Committing a crime is no joke. And being accused of such isn’t either. A good understanding of the basic concepts of the law makes understanding, appreciating, and obeying the law a more straightforward and appealing endeavor.

Maritime Crime Scenes – Crime Scenes on the High Seas

Investigating crimes aboard ships at sea

News stories reporting on piracy along the Somalia coast sparked a world-wide cry for conformity in the training of investigative personnel. The most complex factor is, “Just who is in charge?” The complexity may emanate from a scenario such as this: a hijacked ship may be owned by a Dutch shipping company, flagged in Panama, manned by Filipinos and liberated by German Special Forces.

Coordinating law enforcement activities across the globe is a daunting task, and an acceptable outcome depends of good coordination from investigating agencies and the judicial system where the crime occurs. The US Naval Criminal Investigative Service (USNCIS) and Europol recently joined forces to ensure effective prosecution of the criminal element by conducting a joint meeting in The Hague. These combined forces developed guidelines spelling out how to properly investigate maritime criminal acts.

These guidelines propose a uniformly consistent approach by combining standard, accepted crime scene investigative techniques. Additionally, state-of-the-art forensic examination of crime scene evidence is outlined. The NCIS/Europol alliance looks toward biometric and personal identification techniques such as fingerprint and DNA evidence as causing an increase in the potential for maritime piracy convictions across the board.

It is estimated that nearly 15% of the world’s oil production as well as 20% of world trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Food supplies and other essentials like medical and manufacturing parts and supplies are also directly disturbed by acts of piracy. Much of all of this traffic, estimates say 80%, is bound for European countries.

Maritime piracy is a major issue causing considerable concern with the skyrocketing of the shipping costs that include insurance rates and basic operational costs. A major source of income for Somalia has become piracy-related activities worth hundreds of millions of dollars.

All agencies cite the need for professional, in-depth training for crime scene investigators (CSIs). While each country offers varying levels of exposure to the basic essentials, The International Association for Identification (IAI), the world’s oldest and largest forensic identification group, offers recognized training and certification programs for CSIs.

The IAI requires training hours that range from a minimum of 48 hours of instruction and a 200-question examination for a Certified Crime Scene Investigator, up to 144 hours of instruction and a 400-question test for a Certified Senior Crime Scene Analyst.

This is all well and good for organized law enforcement, but what happens from the time the crime or act of piracy occurs until a trained CSI reaches the scene or vessel involved? Most often the actual crew of the ship in question can make or break any later criminal proceedings. Experts note that a crime occurring on a freighter would be handled differently than a passenger ship. It is a much simpler matter to “Secure the Crime Scene” until trained investigators arrive on a freighter, but crew members on a cruise ship will be motivated to “clean up the mess” so as not to alarm, annoy or disturb the passengers.

One major cruise line reported that during a two-year period, 102 sexual harassment cases and 113 cases of sexual assault were reported.

CNN reports that, “…though cruise companies don’t display crime statistics to the public, they are required to report serious incidents involving Americans to the FBI and U.S. Coast Guard. Salvador Hernandez, deputy assistant director at the FBI in 2007, told lawmakers that the FBI opened 184 cases on crimes that occurred aboard cruise ships between 2002 and early 2007.”

The cruise lines, however, consider those numbers quite small when considering that about 64 million passengers were on-board during that same five-year time frame.

The need for some sort of crime scene training for crew members-particularly those working at on-board security-is a necessity

Such training is slow to evolve, and the certification requirements for Ship and Vessel Security Officers (SSO/VSO) that serve on cruise ships is mainly based upon regulatory standards that fail to offer any guidance or standards relating to basic law enforcement activities and crime scene investigation protocol. This lack of technical knowledge and needed experience in performing those tasks needed for properly processing crime scenes often hampers any follow-up investigation, as well as any resulting prosecution and resolution of the charges in criminal court. For more information on crime scene investigation visit: Crime Scene Tech Blog

Traffic Violations and Criminal Law

Since automobiles are large, heavy objects that have the ability to cause serious property damage and bodily harm, reckless handling of such vehicles can result in criminal consequences. When people are irresponsible and drive their automobiles in a manner that is likely to cause serious bodily injury or death for those people in the environment, then the unsafe driver can face serious administrative and criminal consequences if convicted.

Traffic-related violations can range from minor to extremely serious. Where one traffic violation may result in a small fine and a slap on the wrist, another traffic-related violation may result in a driver’s license suspension or revocation, heavy fines and imprisonment. For example, serious traffic-related charges would include: driving under the influence of drugs or alcohol (even prescription drugs), reckless driving (such as speeding), and hit and run.

The above violations can result in jail or prison sentencing if the driver is convicted. If another person was injured or killed as a result of a traffic-violation, then the defendant could face much harsher penalties. Other serious traffic-related violations also include driving without auto insurance, driving on a suspended license, commercial driver’s license issues, accidents causing serious bodily injury, drag racing, refusal to submit to a breath test, habitual traffic offender, driving on an expired license or with no driver’s license, racing on the highway, and attaching a tag that was not assigned.

In addition to the above violations, there are also numerous ways to commit a crime without ever committing a moving violation. Any unlawful display of a vehicle license or driving on expired registration, driving without valid registration, not having a motorcycle endorsement or permitting an unauthorized person to drive your vehicle can result in penalties. If you have violated any one of the above laws, then you should immediately seek the advice of a qualified and experienced criminal defense attorney who has successfully handled traffic cases.

There are a vast array of traffic-related offenses and violations. The penalties for a traffic-related offense vary greatly depending on the violation, the extent of property damage and whether or not there was any bodily injury or death caused by the traffic offense. The lesser offenses will incur a penalty or fine, whereas a more serious offense can result in license suspension or revocation, fines, jail sentencing or, a number of years in state prison. Since certain traffic-related offenses are criminalized, it is crucial that you hire your own private representation in the face of criminal charges. A skilled and effective attorney may be able to greatly reduce the penalties that you are presently facing, helping you to retain your freedom and your driving privileges. Don’t hesitate to contact a highly experienced criminal defense attorney before it’s too late.

Learn All About Criminal Law Procedures

Been the Victim of a Criminal Offense?
If you have recently been the victim of a criminal offense, then you may be wondering what your next steps should be. Hopefully you have already filed a police report in the jurisdiction in which the offense occurred so that they have the incident on record, as this is the first step in bringing a criminal case to court. From there, however, there are many subsequent steps that are necessary to bring a case to trial and to eventually bring the person to justice who committed the crime in the first place.

Understanding Criminal Offenses
Before you decide to move forward with your case, it is important to understand criminal law and what qualifies as a criminal offense. Essentially, federal law describes a criminal offense as any act of breaking a law, excluding most traffic laws and violations. This can include anything from petty theft to murder, so criminal cases cover a wide variety of incidents. All criminal cases must be brought to trial in front of a judge and/or jury and can be classified into two categories: misdemeanors and felonies. Misdemeanors are less serious criminal offenses, while a felony is a very serious criminal offense that will stay on a person’s record for the rest of their life.

Bringing a Criminal Case to Trial
If you have been the victim of a criminal offense, the first thing that you will want to do, aside from filing a police report, is to hire an attorney for your case. In doing so, you should find a criminal attorney who has specific experience in dealing with your type of case. For example, if you have been the victim of vehicle theft, then it would be wise to look into hiring a lawyer who has had success with a number of theft cases in the past.

From there, you and your lawyer will get to work in gathering evidence to build a compelling case, which will be presented in a court of law. First of all, however, it is important to initiate the legal process of filing charges. This includes going to the court, filling out, and submitting a large amount of paperwork. By having a great lawyer on your side, you can get the help you need to make filing this paperwork easier and get the process going more quickly.

From there, if the suspect is in custody, he or she will be issued a court date and the trial will begin at that time. However, if the suspect is still on the loose, it will be necessary for the police to locate and detain him or her until the date of the trial. From there, the case will be brought to court and a judge or jury will determine the verdict.

Overall, being the victim of a criminal case is something that nobody wants to go through, but by hiring a lawyer and following the proper procedures, you can help bring the criminal to justice.

Law Enforcement Salary Guide

In 2008, there were over 880,000 police and detectives employed in the United States. The employment of police and detectives is forecasted to rise to over 960,000 in 2018. Police and detectives are employed in various occupational titles like first-line supervisors or managers, detectives and criminal investigators, fish and game warden, police and sheriff’s patrol officers, and transit and railroad police. Here’s a salary guide for various occupational titles in law enforcement.

First-Line Supervisors or Managers of Police and Detectives

The general task of a first-line supervisor or manager in law enforcement is to coordinate and manage the activities of the police and detectives. A first-line supervisor is expected to manage the investigation of criminal cases, maintain departmental records, organize police operations, cooperate with court officials, monitor performance of subordinates, and so on. To become a first-line supervisor, you need to have an associate degree, bachelor degree or higher, depending on the job requirements. Work experience is also an important factor for consideration. The mean annual salary for first-line supervisor was about $80,000 in 2008.

Detectives and Criminal Investigators

Detectives and criminal investigators have to investigate cases where local, State or Federal laws may be violated. These law enforcement officers wear plainclothes and their main duties are to collect facts and evidence for criminal cases, examine records, monitor the suspects, conduct interviews, and take part in arrests or raids. It’s common for detectives to specialize in a specific crime such as kidnapping, fraud or homicide. To qualify as a detective or criminal investigator, you will have to work as a police officer for a minimum of 3 years. The basic education requirement is high school but many detectives and criminal investigators obtain associate degrees or bachelor’s degrees for higher chance of promotion. In 2008, the median salary for detectives was approximately $60,000 per annum.

Fish and Game Wardens

Fish and game wardens are officers who uphold the laws pertaining to hunting, fishing, and boating. Their main duties are to patrol fishing and hunting areas, follow up on accidents and complaints, carry out search and rescue procedures, and contribute in prosecuting court cases. In most states, fish and game wardens are required to have at least an associate degree. Once they are accepted into the force, they have to undergo special training for 3 to 12 months. In 2008, the median salary for fish and game wardens was close to $49,000.

Police and Sheriff’s Patrol Officers

Police and sheriff’s patrol officers are tasked with general law enforcement duties. Uniformed police officers maintain patrols in their areas, enforce traffic laws, respond to calls for service, identify and arrest suspected criminals, and so on. Sheriff’s patrol officers have similar duties but they work on the county level. The minimum requirement for these uniformed officers is a high school diploma but they have to attend training at the academy. In 2008, the median salary for police and sheriff’s patrol officers is about $51,000.

Transit and Railroad Police

The main task of transit and railroad police is to protect and safeguard transit and railroad property, including the passengers and employees. To qualify for the position, you must have a high school diploma or equivalent. You will also be required to undergo training at the academy. In 2008, the median salary for transit and railroad police is about $56,000.